Title: What do whales feel?
An examination of the functioning of the senses in cetaceans, the group ofmammals comprising whales, dolphins and porpoises.
从对标题的阅读中，我们可以了解到这篇文章要讲的是鲸的感官，the senses of whales.在这里我们可以预测下感官有哪些，同时可以对下面文章的内容进行预测。
Some of the senses that we and other terrestrial mammals take for grantedare either reduced or absent in cetaceans for fail to function well in water.For example, it appears from their brain structure that toothed species areunable to smell. Baleen species, on the other hand, appear to have some relatedbrain structures but it is not known whether these are functional. It has beenspeculated that, as the blowholes evolved and migrated to the top of the head,the neural pathways serving sense of smell may have been nearly all sacrificed.Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves servingthese have degenerated or are rudimentary.
从首句的主干中得出一些感官在退化，消失或者在水中已失去了功用。紧跟在这句话后面的是个for example,说明后面再举些这类型的感官。最后一句以similarly开头，说明即使最后一句也是一个例子，然后是个名词taste buds,说到了味觉，用了degenerated,rudimentary描述这个味觉，rudimentary大多数考生不认识，但degenerated可以根据构词法推出是退化。
The sense of touch has sometimes been described as weak too, but this viewis probably mistaken. Trainers of captive dolphins and small whales often remarkon their animals’ responsiveness to being touched or rubbed, and both captiveand free-ranging cetacean individuals of all species (particularly adults andcalves, or members of the same subgroup) appear to make frequent contact. Thiscontact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching arepart of the courtship ritual in most species. The area around the blowhole isalso particularly sensitive and captive animals often object strongly to beingtouched there.
The sense of vision is developed to different degrees in different species.Baleen species studied at close quarters underwater-specifically a grey whalecalf in captivity for a year, and free-ranging right whales and humpback whalesstudied and filmed off Argentina and Hawaii-have obviously tracked objects withvision underwater, and they can apparently see moderately well both in water andin air. However, the position of the eyes so restricts and field of vision inbaleen whales that they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.
读首句就可看出这段讲的是视觉。最后一句提到了baleen whales的眼睛位置限制了它们的视觉域，they probably do not havestereoscopic vision.
On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoisessuggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward. Eye positionin freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down whilefeeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward.By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water.Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it canapparently see fairly well through the air-water interface as well. And althoughpreliminary experimental evidence suggests that their in-air vision is poor, theaccuracy with which dolphins leap high to take small fish out of a trainer’shand provides anecdotal evidence to the contrary.
首句有on the other hand表转折，说明要和上段有联系，接着往后看又说到了眼睛的位置，这次说的是most dolphins andporpoises, they are not like the baleen whales, they have stereoscopic visionforward and downward.
Such variation can no doubt be explained with reference to the habitats inwhich individual species have developed. For example, vision is obviously moreuseful to species inhabiting clear open waters than to those living in turbidrivers and flooded plains. The South American boutu and Chinese beiji, forinstance, appear to have very limited vision, and the Indian susus are blind,their eyes reduced to slits that probably allow them to sense only the directionand intensity of light.
首句一读的话会发现一个重要的词汇habitats. 在这句之后又有了for example, 同时看到了vision,说明这段讲vision和habitats的关系。